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Gnaiger Erich

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BEC 2020.1 Mitochondrial physiology
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COST Action CA15203 (2016-2021): MitoEAGLE
Evolution-Age-Gender-Lifestyle-Environment: mitochondrial fitness mapping

Gnaiger Erich

MitoPedia topics: EAGLE 

COST: Member COST WG1: WG1 COST WG2: WG2 COST WG3: WG3 COST WG4: WG4 COST Mentor: Mentor

Chair - Management Committee MitoEAGLE

Name Gnaiger Erich, Ao.Univ.-Prof.i.R., PhD


Local organizer of EBEC 2024 - contact for EBEC 2024: [email protected]

Erich Gnaiger

Editor-in-chief: Bioenergetics Communications -

Chair Mitochondrial Physiology Society

Combination of interests: science and enterprise
Template NextGen-O2k.jpg
Founder and CEO of Oroboros Instruments
The joy of success is the next step.
I am what I can.
Address Oroboros Instruments

Schoepfstrasse 18, A-6020

City Innsbruck
Country Austria
Email [email protected]
Weblink,, Mitochondrial Physiology Society
O2k-Network Lab AT Innsbruck Gnaiger E, AT Innsbruck MitoFit, AT Innsbruck Oroboros

Labels: Field of research: Basic  Topics: High-resolution respirometry, MitoPedia: high-resolution terminology 



Komlodi 2023 EUROMIT2023 Bologna2023KomlĂłdi T, Silva FSG, Duarte AI, Mena D, Garcia-Souza LF, Makrecka-Kuka M, Bento G, Grilo LF, Oliveira PJ, Gnaiger E (2023) Off-target effects of etomoxir: inhibition of mitochondrial Complex I and fatty acid oxidation. EUROMIT2023 International Conference on Mitochondrial Pathology.
Gnaiger 2023 MiP20232023
Erich Gnaiger
From globesity to mitObesity.
Baglivo 2023 ESCI Prague2023
Baglivo Eleonora
Baglivo E, Timon-Gomez A, Gnaiger E (2023) The cytochrome c test for respirometric quality control of the integrity of the mitochondrial outer membrane. 57th Annual Scientific Meeting of the European Society for Clinical Investigation.
Timon-Gomez 2023 EUROMIT2023 Bologna2023
Timon-Gomez Alba
Timon-Gomez A, Cardoso L, Baglivo E, Doerrier C, Gnaiger E (2023) Mitochondrial injury in warm ischemia studied by high-resolution respirometry. EUROMIT2023 International Conference on Mitochondrial Pathology.
Cardoso 2023 BPS2023 San Diego2023
Erich Gnaiger
Cardoso LHD, Timon-Gomez A, Doerrier C, Garcia-Souza LF, Gnaiger Erich (2023) Respirometric substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titration protocols for carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism: from heart to brain mitochondria. 67th Annual Meeting of the Biophysical Society.
Leo 2023 ESCI Prague2023
Leo Elettra
Leo E, Zdrazilova L, Garcia-Souza LF, Åsander-Frostner E, ElmĂ©r E, Gnaiger E (2023) High-resolution respirometry is comparable in 0.5 mL and 2.0 mL chamber volumes: studies with platelets, permeabilized fibroblasts, and isolated mitochondria. 57th Annual Scientific Meeting of the European Society for Clinical Investigation.
Cecatto 2023 BPS2023 San Diego2023
Sabine Schmitt
Cecatto C, Schmitt Sabine, Cardoso L, Videja M, Dambrova M, Makrecka-Kuka M, Liepinsh E, Gnaiger E (2023) Contribution of fatty acid oxidation to respiratory control in brain mitochondria. 67th Annual Meeting of the Biophysical Society.
Timon-Gomez 2023 GIBB2023
Timon-Gomez Alba
TimĂłn-GĂłmez A, Cardoso LHD, Doerrier C, Garcia-Souza LF, Gnaiger E (2023) A reference substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titration protocol to create a mitochondrial pathway and coupling control database. Third international GIBB meeting.
Schmitt 2023 BPS2023 San Diego2023
Erich Gnaiger
Schmitt S, Cardoso LHD, Cecatto C, Komlodi T, Gnaiger Erich (2023) Mitochondrial bioenergetics – a quantitative analytical and diagnostic approach. 67th Annual Meeting of the Biophysical Society.
Cardoso 2022 ESCI Bari2022
Luiza Cardoso
Cardoso LHD, Donnelly C, KomlĂłdi T, Gnaiger E (2022) Bioenergetic fingerprinting with coupling and pathway control of coenzyme Q redox state and respiration in permeabilized HEK 293T cells. 56th Annual Scientific Meeting of the European Society for Clinical Investigation.
Donnelly 2022 Abstract Bioblast20222.1. «10+5»
Donnelly Chris
Donnelly Chris, Schmitt S, Cecatto C, Cardoso L, Komlodi T, Place N, Kayser B, Gnaiger E (2022) The ABC of hypoxia – what is the norm. Bioblast 2022: BEC Inaugural Conference. In:
»MitoFit Preprint« »Watch the presentation«
Garcia-Roves 2022 Abstract Bioblast20224.4. «10+5»
Pablo Garcia-Roves
Gama-Perez P, Cardoso L, Komlodi K, Bosch N, Gnaiger E, Garcia-Roves Pablo M (2022) Tuning the assessment of coenzyme Q redox state and respiration in permeabilized skeletal muscle fibers. Bioblast 2022: BEC Inaugural Conference. In: »Watch the presentation«
Cecatto 2022 EBEC2022
Cristiane Cecatto
Cecatto C, Cardoso LHD, Gnaiger E (2022) Mitochondrial calcium uptake capacity is lower than calcium retention capacity in the presence and absence of cyclosporin A. EBEC 2022.
Porter 2022 Abstract Bioblast20226.3. «10+5»
Porter Richard K
Karavyraki M, Gnaiger E, Porter Richard K (2022) A comparison of bioenergetics in human tongue pre-cancerous dysplastic oral keratinocytes and squamous cancer cells. Bioblast 2022: BEC Inaugural Conference. In:
»MitoFit Preprint« »Watch the presentation«
Baglivo 2022 Abstract Bioblast20224.1. «10+5»
Baglivo Eleonora
Baglivo Eleonora, Cardoso LHD, Cecatto C, Gnaiger E (2022) Statistical analysis of instrumental reproducibility as internal quality control in high-resolution respirometry. Bioblast 2022: BEC Inaugural Conference. In:
»Bioenergetics Communications« »Watch the presentation«
Bergmeister 2022 Abstract Bioblast2022P11.
Bergmeister Lisa
Bergmeister Lisa, Doerrier C, Gnaiger E, Schwarzer C (2022) The role of enkephalin in hypoxic preconditioning. Bioblast 2022: BEC Inaugural Conference. In:
Schmitt 2022 EBEC2022
Sabine Schmitt
Schmitt S, Gnaiger E (2022) Short-term effect of molecular hydrogen on mitochondrial respiration and hydrogen peroxide production in permeabilized HEK 293T cells. EBEC 2022.
Gnaiger 2022 Abstract Bioblast-eds20221.
Gnaiger Erich, Cardoso Luiza HD, Tindle-Solomon Lisa, Cocco Paolo (2022) Bioblast 2022: BEC Inaugural Conference. In:
Molina 2022 Abstract Bioblast20223.2. «10+5»
Molina Anthony JA
Heimler SR, Phang HJ, Bergstrom J, Mahapatra G, Dozier S, Gnaiger E, Molina Anthony JA (2022) Platelet bioenergetics are associated with resting metabolic rate and exercise capacity in older women. Bioblast 2022: BEC Inaugural Conference. In:
»Bioenergetics Communications« »Watch the presentation«
Cardoso 2022 Abstract Bioblast20224.3. «10+5»
Luiza Cardoso
Cardoso Luiza HD, Doerrier C, Donnelly C, Komlódi T, Gnaiger E (2022) Redox monitoring and respiration - a new horizon with the NextGen-O2k. Bioblast 2022: BEC Inaugural Conference. In: »Watch the presentation«
Gnaiger 2022 Abstract Bioblasts20221.01.
Erich Gnaiger
Gnaiger Erich (2022) Bioblasts - the taxonomic unit of bioenergetics: mitochondria, aerobic bacteria, chloroplasts. Bioblast 2022: BEC Inaugural Conference. In:
»Mitochondr Physiol Network 2010 - a Living Communication« »Watch the presentation«
Schmitt 2022 Abstract Bioblast20222.2. «10+5»
Sabine Schmitt
Schmitt Sabine, Gnaiger E (2022) Using oxygen and hydrogen gas in studies of mitochondrial respiration and hydrogen peroxide production under hyperoxic, normoxic, and hypoxic conditions. Bioblast 2022: BEC Inaugural Conference. In: »Watch the presentation«
Pallag 2022 Abstract Bioblast2022P06.
Pallag Gergely
Pallag Gergely, Nazarian S, Ravasz D, Bui D, KomlĂłdi T, Doerrier C, Gnaiger E, Seyfried TN, Chinopoulos C (2022) Proline oxidation supports mitochondrial ATP production when Complex I is inhibited. Bioblast 2022: BEC Inaugural Conference. In:
»MitoFit Preprint«
Cardoso 2022 Q10 Hamburg2022Cardoso LHD, Donnelly C, Komlodi T, Gnaiger E (2022) Coenzyme Q redox state and respiration in permeabilized HEK 293T cells: coupling and pathway control. Q10 Hamburg.
Cardoso 2022b EBEC2022
Luiza Cardoso
Baglivo E, Cardoso LHD, Cecatto C, Gnaiger E (2022) Instrumental quality control and evaluation of mitochondrial respiration medium in high-resolution respirometry with living and permeabilized cells. EBEC 2022.
Gnaiger 2022 Abstract Bioblast-PB2022P03.
Erich Gnaiger
Went N, Di Marcello M, Gnaiger Erich (2022) Oxygen dependence of photosynthesis and light-enhanced dark respiration studied by high-resolution PhotoRespirometry. Bioblast 2022: BEC Inaugural Conference. In:
»MitoFit Preprint«
Meszaros 2022 Abstract Bioblast20226.6. «5 min»
Meszaros Andras
Meszaros Andras T, Hofmann J, Gnaiger E, Oberhuber R, Hautz T, Öfner D, Schneeberger S (2022) Pre-transplant mitochondrial respiration as a clinical prognostic marker during static cold storage and machine perfusion of the liver. Bioblast 2022: BEC Inaugural Conference. In: »Watch the presentation«
Cecatto 2022 Abstract Bioblast20225.1. «10+5»
Cecatto Cristiane
Cecatto Cristiane, Cardoso LHD, Gnaiger E (2022) Mitochondrial calcium uptake capacity is lower than calcium retention capacity in the presence and absence of cyclosporin A. Bioblast 2022: BEC Inaugural Conference. In: »Watch the presentation«
Cardoso 2022a EBEC2022
Luiza Cardoso
Cardoso LHD, Donnelly C, KomlĂłdi T, Gnaiger E (2022) Characterizing electron transfer through the mitochondrial Q-junction from fatty acid oxidation and TCA cycle on HEK 293T cells: correlation with respiration. EBEC 2022.
Gnaiger 2020 PaduaMuscleDays2020Gnaiger E (2020) Body mass excess, muscle mass, obesity and mitochondrial fitness. PaduaMuscleDays.
Gnaiger 2020 MiP20202020
Erich Gnaiger
Gnaiger 2020 APS Chicago2020Gnaiger E (2020) Aerobic exercise capacity and mitochondrial fitness: from muscle to brain. APS2020 Chicago.
Jusic 2019 ESCI20192019Jusic A, Gnaiger E (2019) Feedback and mutual expectations: COST Action CA15203 MitoEAGLE MC member Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Ravasz 2019 Abstract IOC1412019Ravasz D, Bui D, Kitayev A, Greenwood B, Hill C, Komlodi T, Doerrier C, Ozohanics O, Moore AL, Gnaiger E, Kiebish M, Kolev K, Seyfried TN, Willis WT, Narain N, Adam-Vizi V, Chinopoulos C (2019) Endogenous quinones sustain a moderate NADH oxidation by Complex I during anoxia. Mitochondr Physiol Network 24.02.
Gnaiger 2018 MiPschool Tromso A12018
Erich Gnaiger
Mitochondrial states and rates: 1. Electron transfer pathways and respiratory control. 2. Coupling control.
Gnaiger 2018 MiPschool Tromso A22018
Erich Gnaiger
The protonmotive force and respiratory control. 1. Coupling of electron transfer reactions to vectorial translocation of protons. 2. From Einstein’s diffusion equation on gradients to Fick’s law on compartments.
Sobotka 2018 MiP20182018
Ondrej Sobotka
Measurement of ROS production under hypoxia and unexpected methodological pitfalls of Amplex UltraRed assay.
Gnaiger 2018 AussieMit2018Komlodi Timea, Sobotka Ondrej, Doerrier Carolina, Gnaiger Erich (2018) Mitochondrial H2O2 production is low under tissue normoxia but high at in-vitro air-level oxygen pressure - comparison of LEAK and OXPHOS states. AussieMit 2018 Melbourne AU.
Gnaiger 2018 MiP20182018
Erich Gnaiger
Mitochondrial respiratory control by fuel substrates and specific inhibitors of respiratory enzymes: Building blocks of mitochondrial physiology Part 2.
Komlodi 2018 EBEC20182018Electron supply to the Q-junction: assessment of mitochondrial respiration, H2O2 flux and the redox state of the Q-pool.
Gnaiger 2017 MiPschool A42017
Gnaiger Erich.jpg
Respiratory pathway control in mitochondrial core energy metabolism: from bioenergetics to mitochondrial physiology.
Gnaiger 2017 MiPschool C12017
Gnaiger Erich.jpg
Apparent Complex IV excess capacity and biochemical thresholds.
Cizmarova 2017 MiPschool Obergurgl2017
Beata Cizmarova
The scope of cryopreservation in blood cells for functional mitochondrial diagnosis.
Neururer 2017 Abstract Health Informatics 20172017Developing a standardized minimum dataset for mitochondrial research data – a project outline.
Gnaiger 2017 MiP20172017Gnaiger E (2017) Protonmotive force and chemiosmotic pressure: a generalization of non-ohmic flux control of the proton leak. MiP2017.
Gnaiger 2017 MiPschool C42017
Gnaiger Erich.jpg
Respiratory control ratios and control factors
Neururer 2017 Abstract Global Biobank Week 20172017Extending MIABIS for the development of a standardized minimum dataset for mitochondrial research data.
Komlodi 2017 MiP20172017
Timea Komlodi
H2O2 production under hypoxia in brain and heart mitochondria: does O2 concentration matter?
Gnaiger 2017 MiPschool A12017
Gnaiger Erich.jpg
Elemental steps towards understanding mitochondrial core energy metabolism: coupling control.
Neururer 2016 Abstract Mito Xmas Meeting Innsbruck2016A project to develop a standardized minimum dataset to describe mitochondrial data.
Sumbalova 2015 Abstract MiP20152015High-resolution measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential and respiration – comparison of potentiometric and fluorometric methods.
Gnaiger 2015 Abstract MiPschool Cape Town 2015 II2015On coupling control of mitochondrial respiration. What is wrong with the RCR?
Gnaiger 2014 Abstract MiP20142014Cell ergometry: OXPHOS and ET-pathway coupling efficiency.
Gnaiger 2013 MiP2013-Opening2013Gnaiger E (2013) What is mitochondrial physiology – why comparative? Mitochondr Physiol Network 18.08.
Kliemt 2012 Abstract Bioblast2012Kliemt U, Gnaiger E (2012) Power and efficiency: Tempo giusto in classical music, thermodynamics and industrial revolution, and the speed of life. Mitochondr Physiol Network 17.12.
Leo 2012 Abstract Bioblast2012Leo H, Gnaiger E (2012) Happiness and mitochrondrial activity. Mitochondr Physiol Network 17.12.
Meissner 2012 Abstract Bioblast2012Meissner B, Gnaiger E (2012) Open Innovation. Mitochondr Physiol Network 17.12.
Burtscher 2011Abstract Mitochondrial Medicine2011Burtscher M, Dietrich H, Gatterer H, Gnaiger E, Harrison DK, Karall D, Krismer M, Lass-Floerl C, Parson W, Perkhofer S, Pesta D, Schocke M, Sumbalova Z, WiethĂŒchter A (2011) Mitochondrial competence. Regional and international cooperation for establishing new standards in functional mitochondrial diagnosis. Abstract Mitochondrial Medicine Chicago.
Gnaiger MiP2010 7-032010Gnaiger E (2010) MiPArt exhibition “The Beauty of Mitochondria”
Gnaiger MiP20102010Gnaiger E, Renner-Sattler K (2010) FEBS Workshop: Mitochondrial Physiology. The Many Functions of the Organism in Our Cells.
Wiethuechter MiP20102010Wiethuechter A, Gnaiger E (2010) Bioblast wiki.
Gnaiger 2005 Abstract MiP20052005Gnaiger Erich, Wright-Paradis C, Sondergaard H, Lundby C, Calbet Jose AL, Saltin Bengt, Helge J, Boushel R (2005) High-resolution respirometry in small biopsies of human muscle: correlations with body mass index and age. MiP2005.


MitoEAGLE mentor



Erich Gnaiger

D. Swarovski Research Laboratory
Department of Visceral, Transplant and Thoracic Surgery
Medical University of Innsbruck
A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria
Tel: +43 512 5667960
Email: [email protected]
Erich Gnaiger is the founder and CEO of the company Oroboros Instruments ( with world-wide technological leadership in high-resolution respirometry, reference laboratories in 49 countries, >3,000 O2k-Publications listed on our website, and >1,000 award-winning O2k-FluoRespirometer instruments sold. The cooperation between academia (Medical University of Innsbruck) and industry (Oroboros Instruments) is formalized in a K-Regio Centre of Excellence with the projects MitoCom Tyrol and MitoFit coordinated by Erich Gnaiger. Erich Gnaiger has scientific and technical expertise in the fields of mitochondrial physiology and pathology, microcalorimetry and biological thermodynamics, contributing fundamentally to the understanding of mitochondrial respiratory control by oxygen, and development and application of high-resolution respirometry to cellular bioenergetics and the diagnosis of mitochondrial defects, particularly in relation to hypoxia, cold storage and ischemia-reperfusion injury. He is initiator (2003) and chairman of the International Mitochondrial Physiology Society (MiP;, and has organized numerous conferences (particularly MiP2003, MiP2005, MiP2010, MiP2013 and MiP2014 in Austria), workshops (more than 130 international O2k-Workshops on high-resolution respirometry), and training courses on mitochondrial physiology, bioenergetics and biological thermodynamics, and is editor of several proceedings of international meetings. The international teaching activities range from thermodynamics of irreversible processes for chemical engineers (EU-level training; member of the IUPAC steering committee on biological thermodynamics) to mitochondrial physiology (Innsbruck Summer School 1991; initiator of the MiPsummer Schools 2007, 2008, 2017 in Austria; 2009 in Louisiana, US; 2010 in Lithuania, 2018 in Normway). Erich Gnaiger is member of the editorial board of the journal ‘Mitochondrion’. He is Chair of the COST Action CA15203 MitoEAGLE (2016-2020).
Erich Gnaiger is initiator of ‘Gentle Science’ (

MiPsociety Chairperson of the Mitochondrial Physiology Society

Academic training
1985: Habilitation: Stoichiometric and calorimetric principles of aerobic and anaerobic energy budgets and thermodynamic optimization in metabolic economy: Rate and power, versus efficiency. University of Innsbruck, Department of Zoology.
1974-80: University of Innsbruck, graduate, zoophysiology, limnology and biochemistry.
Ph.D. thesis: Direct calorimetry and bioenergetics: aerobic and anoxic metabolism in aquatic oligochaetes. Dept. Zoology, University of Innsbruck.
1970-74: University of Vienna, undergraduate, zoology and biochemistry.

Positions held
2017 - Ao. Univ.-Prof. i.R.; D. Swarovski Research Laboratory, Department of Visceral, Transplant and Thoracic Surgery, Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria.
1993-2017 Cooperation with Univ.-Prof. Dr. R. Margreiter, initiating and leading the research laboratory associated with the Department of Transplant Surgery, Medical School, University of Innsbruck; Ao.Univ.-Prof.; D. Swarovski Research Laboratory, Department of Visceral, Transplant and Thoracic Surgery, Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria.
1999 -Honorary Professor, Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. Wales, Aberystwyth, UK.
1992-99 Honorary Fellow, Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. Wales, Aberystwyth, UK.
1989-92 Research position, Austrian Science Foundation FWF and FFF.
1986-88 FWF Erwin Schrödinger Fellowship (USA)
1985-92 Research Assistant Professor, Dept. Zool., Univ. Innsbruck, Austria.
1984-85 Research Assistant and Lecturer, Dept. Zool., Univ. Innsbruck
1982-83 Postdoctoral position, Inst. Marine Environ. Research, Plymouth, UK.
1980-81 Austrian Science Foundation FWF, postdoctoral associate, Dept. Zool., Univ. Innsbruck.
1980-81 Lecturer, Dept. Zool., Univ. Innsbruck.
1974-80 Austrian Science Foundation research assistant, Dept. Zool., Univ. Innsbruck.

Research support: Projects
COST Action MitoEAGLE COST Action MitoEAGLE - Chair
MitoFit K-Regio MitoFit
MitoCom logo based on MiPArt by Odra Noel
K-Regio, MitoCom Tyrol

COST Action TD0901 HypoxiaNet.
COST Action FA0602 Mitofood.
Marsden, Univ. Auckland, New Zealand.
FEBS Workshop Grant
Austrian Science Foundation, FWF.
Austrian Science Foundation for Commerce FFF (now FFG).
Austrian Ministry of Science.
Austrian Ministry of the Environment.
Community Action Programme in Education and Training for Technology, COMETT.
ÖAD Acciones Integradas: Innsbruck-Barcelona; Innsbruck-Madrid.
Swedish National Science Foundation; co-PI with Dr. L. Gustafsson, Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
Erwin-Schrödinger Fellowship, Austria (UK and USA).
British Council Postdoctoral Fellowship, UK.

2012 Houska Award 2012 (Vienna, AT, Apr 2012)
2003 Lavoisier award of the International Society of Biological Microcalorimetry (WĂŒrzburg, DE, Oct 2003)
1999 Honorary Professor, Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. Wales, Aberystwyth, UK.

Selected publications

Selected conference proceedings / edited books

  1. Gnaiger E (2014) Mitochondrial pathways and respiratory control. An introduction to OXPHOS analysis. 4th ed. Mitochondr Physiol Network 19.12. Oroboros MiPNet Publications, Innsbruck:80 pp. - »Bioblast link«
  2. Laner V, Gnaiger E, eds (2014) Mitochondrial physiology – methods, concepts and biomedical perspectives. MiP2014. Mitochondr Physiol Network 19.13:88 pp. - »Bioblast link«
  3. Laner V, Bidaurratzaga E, Gnaiger E, eds (2013) Comparative Mitochondrial Physiology. MiP2013. Mitochondr Physiol Network 18.08:96 pp. - »Bioblast link«
  4. Gnaiger E, Meissner B, Laner V, eds (2012) Bioblast 2012: Mitochondrial Competence. Mitochondr Physiol Network 17.12. Oroboros MiPNet Publications, Innsbruck: 96 pp. »Open Access
  5. Renner-Sattler K, Gnaiger E, eds (2010) Mitochondrial physiology. The many functions of the organism in our cells. Mitochondr Physiol Network 15.6: 128 pp. »MiP2010
  6. Gnaiger E, Gellerich FN, Wyss M, eds (1994) What is Controlling Life? 50 Years after Erwin Schrödinger's What is Life? Modern Trends in BioThermoKinetics 3. Innsbruck Univ. Press, Innsbruck: 336 pp. »Open Access
  7. Wieser W, Gnaiger E, eds (1989) Energy Transformations in Cells and Organisms. Thieme Publ., Stuttgart: 330 pp.
  8. Gnaiger E, Forstner H, eds (1983) Polarographic Oxygen Sensors. Aquatic and Physiological Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: 370 pp. »Bioblast Access

Selected publications 2010-

  1. Schöpf B, SchÀfer G, Weber A, Talasz H, Eder IE, Klocker H, Gnaiger E (2016) Oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial function differ between human prostate tissue and cultured cells. FEBS J. - »Bioblast link«
  2. Gnaiger E, Boushel R, SĂžndergaard H, Munch-Andersen T, Damsgaard R, Hagen C, DĂ­ez-SĂĄnchez C, Ara I, Wright-Paradis C, Schrauwen P, Hesselink M, Calbet JAL, Christiansen M, Helge JW, Saltin B (2015) Mitochondrial coupling and capacity of oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle of Inuit and caucasians in the arctic winter. Scand J Med Sci Sports 25 (Suppl 4):126–34. - »Bioblast link«
  3. Harrison DK, Fasching M, Fontana-Ayoub M, Gnaiger E (2015) Cytochrome redox states and respiratory control in mouse and beef heart mitochondria at steady-state levels of hypoxia. J Appl Physiol Aug 6:jap.00146.2015. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00146.2015. - »Bioblast link«
  4. Burtscher J, Zangrandi L, Schwarzer C, Gnaiger E (2015) Differences in mitochondrial function in homogenated samples from healthy and epileptic specific brain tissues revealed by high-resolution respirometry. Mitochondrion 25:104-12. - »Bioblast link«
  5. Pesta D, Gnaiger E (2012) High-resolution respirometry. OXPHOS protocols for human cells and permeabilized fibres from small biopsies of human muscle. Methods Mol Biol 810:25-58. - »Bioblast link«
  6. Votion DM, Gnaiger E, Lemieux H, Mouithys-Mickalad A, Serteyn D (2012) Physical fitness and mitochondrial respiratory capacity in horse skeletal muscle. PLoS One 7:e34890. - »Bioblast link«
  7. Lemieux H, Semsroth S, Antretter H, Höfer D, Gnaiger E (2011) Mitochondrial respiratory control and early defects of oxidative phosphorylation in the failing human heart. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 43:1729–38. - »Bioblast link«
  8. Pesta D, Hoppel F, Macek C, Messner H, Faulhaber M, Kobel C, Parson W, Burtscher M, Schocke M, Gnaiger E (2011) Similar qualitative and quantitative changes of mitochondrial respiration following strength and endurance training in normoxia and hypoxia in sedentary humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 301:R1078–87. - »Bioblast link«
  9. Scandurra FM, Gnaiger E (2010) Cell respiration under hypoxia: Facts and artefacts in mitochondrial oxygen kinetics. Adv Exp Med Biol 662:7-25. - »Bioblast link«

12 Selected Publications: 2000-2009

  1. Gnaiger E (2009) Capacity of oxidative phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle. New perspectives of mitochondrial physiology. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 41:1837–45. - »Bioblast link«
  2. Aragonés J, Schneider M, Van Geyte K, Fraisl P, Dresselaers T, Mazzone M, Dirkx R, Zacchigna S, Lemieux H, Jeoung NH, Lambrechts D, Bishop T, Lafuste P, Diez-Juan A, K Harten S, Van Noten P, De Bock K, Willam C, Tjwa M, Grosfeld A, Navet R, Moons L, Vandendriessche T, Deroose C, Wijeyekoon B, Nuyts J, Jordan B, Silasi-Mansat R, Lupu F, Dewerchin M, Pugh C, Salmon P, Mortelmans L, Gallez B, Gorus F, Buyse J, Sluse F, Harris RA, Gnaiger E, Hespel P, Van Hecke P, Schuit F, Van Veldhoven P, Ratcliffe P, Baes M, Maxwell P, Carmeliet P (2008) Deficiency or inhibition of oxygen sensor Phd1 induces hypoxia tolerance by reprogramming basal metabolism. Nat Genet 40:170-80. - »Bioblast link«
  3. Boushel R, Gnaiger E, Schjerling P, Skovbro M, KraunsÞe R, Dela F (2007) Patients with Type 2 Diabetes have normal mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Diabetologia 50:790-6. - »Bioblast link«
  4. Stadlmann S, Renner K, Pollheimer J, Moser PL, Zeimet AG, Offner FA, Gnaiger E (2006) Preserved coupling of oxydative phosphorylation but decreased mitochondrial respiratory capacity in IL-1ÎČ treated human peritoneal mesothelial cells. Cell Biochem Biophys 44:179-86. - »Bioblast link«
  5. HĂŒtter E, Renner K, Pfister G, Stöckl P, Jansen-DĂŒrr P, Gnaiger E (2004) Senescence-associated changes in respiration and oxidative phosphorylation in primary human fibroblasts. Biochem J 380:919-28. - »Bioblast link«
  6. Kuznetsov AV, Schneeberger S, Seiler R, Brandacher G, Mark W, Steurer W, Saks V, Usson Y, Margreiter R, Gnaiger E (2004) Mitochondrial defects and heterogeneous cytochrome c release after cardiac cold ischemia and reperfusion. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 286:H1633–41. - »Bioblast link«
  7. Gnaiger E (2003) Oxygen conformance of cellular respiration. A perspective of mitochondrial physiology. Adv Exp Med Biol 543:39-56. - »Bioblast link«
  8. Renner K, Amberger A, Konwalinka G, Kofler R, Gnaiger E (2003) Changes of mitochondrial respiration, mitochondrial content and cell size after induction of apoptosis in leukemia cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 1642:115-23. - »Bioblast link«
  9. Gnaiger E, Kuznetsov AV (2002) Mitochondrial respiration at low levels of oxygen and cytochrome c. Biochem Soc Trans 30:252-8. - »Bioblast link«
  10. Stadlmann S, Rieger G, Amberger A, Kuznetsov AV, Margreiter R, Gnaiger E (2002) H2O2-mediated oxidative stress versus cold ischemia-reperfusion: mitochondrial respiratory defects in cultured human endothelial cells. Transplantation 74:1800-3. - »Bioblast link«
  11. Gnaiger E (2001) Bioenergetics at low oxygen: dependence of respiration and phosphorylation on oxygen and adenosine diphosphate supply. Respir Physiol 128:277-97. - »Bioblast link«
  12. Gnaiger E, Méndez G, Hand SC (2000) High phosphorylation efficiency and depression of uncoupled respiration in mitochondria under hypoxia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:11080-5.»Bioblast link«

12 selected publications: up to 1999

  1. Oexle H, Gnaiger E, Weiss G (1999) Iron-dependent changes in cellular energy metabolism: influence on citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Biochim Biophys Acta 1413:99-107. - »Bioblast link«
  2. Gnaiger E, Lassnig B, Kuznetsov AV, Rieger G, Margreiter R (1998) Mitochondrial oxygen affinity, respiratory flux control and excess capacity of cytochrome c oxidase. J Exp Biol 201:1129-39. - »Bioblast link«
  3. Gnaiger E, Lassnig B, Kuznetsov AV, Margreiter R (1998) Mitochondrial respiration in the low oxygen environment of the cell. Effect of ADP on oxygen kinetics. Biochim Biophys Acta 1365:249-54. - »Bioblast link«
  4. Steinlechner-Maran R, Eberl T, Kunc M, Schröcksnadel H, Margreiter R, Gnaiger E (1997) Respiratory defect as an early event in preservation/reoxygenation injury in endothelial cells. Transplantation 63:136-42. - »Bioblast link«
  5. Steinlechner-Maran R, Eberl T, Kunc M, Margreiter R, Gnaiger E (1996) Oxygen dependence of respiration in coupled and uncoupled endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 271:C2053-61. - »Bioblast link«
  6. Gnaiger E, Steinlechner-Maran R, Méndez G, Eberl T, Margreiter R (1995) Control of mitochondrial and cellular respiration by oxygen. J Bioenerg Biomembr 27:583-96. - »Bioblast link«
  7. Gnaiger E (1993) Efficiency and power strategies under hypoxia. Is low efficiency at high glycolytic ATP production a paradox? In Surviving Hypoxia: Mechanisms of Control and Adaptation. Hochachka PW, Lutz PL, Sick T, Rosenthal M, Van den Thillart G (eds) CRC Press, Boca Raton, Ann Arbor, London, Tokyo:77-109. - »Bioblast link«
  8. Von Stockar U, Gustafsson L, Larsson C, Marison I, Tissot P, Gnaiger E (1993) Thermodynamic considerations in constructing energy balances for cellular growth. Biochim Biophys Acta 1183:221-40. - »Bioblast link«
  9. Buck LT, Hochachka PW, Schön A, Gnaiger E (1993) Microcalorimetric measurement of reversible metabolic suppression induced by anoxia in isolated hepatocytes. Am J Physiol 265:R1014-19. - »Bioblast link«
  10. Gnaiger E (1993) Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of energy transformations. Pure Appl Chem 65:1983-2002. - »Bioblast link«
  11. Gnaiger E, Kemp RB (1990) Anaerobic metabolism in aerobic mammalian cells. Information from the ratio of calorimetric heat flux and respirometric oxygen flux. Biochim Biophys Acta 1016:328-32. - »Bioblast link«
  12. Hand SC, Gnaiger E (1988) Anaerobic dormancy quantified in Artemia embryos: A calorimetric test of the control mechanism. Science 239:1425-7. - »Bioblast link«

The world as a laboratory

Expeditions: The world as a laboratory

Erich Gnaiger, Wolstenhjolm Fjord Greenland March 2004
Northern Greenland 2004
Monte Rosa, Italy 2004
Mt. Chacaltaya, Bolivia 2012
Everest Base Camp, Nepal 2013
Racing dogs at Iditarod, Alaska 2014
» Racing dogs Alaska, IOC84
To the heart of the Amazon, Manaus 2015


Further information
  • Houska Award 2012 - The project MitoCom Tyrol received the Houska Award 2012, Austria's most prestigeous privately funded award for research.
MitoGlobal Member of Mitochondrial Global Network Centres
Company of Scientists Founder of the Company of Scientists


DSL-Oroboros Research Laboratory
Daniel Swarovski Research Laboratory (DSL)
Department of Visceral, Transplant and Thoracic Surgery
Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria
MitoFit is a consortium of academic and industrial partners for integrative research in mitochondrial physiology and pathology. MitoFit (Universities of Innsbruck; Oroboros Instruments, WGT Elektronik, Austria) supports international mitochondrial networks, for exchange of expertise and standardization of diagnostic approaches, in a joint effort to helping mitochondrial patients and making a difference to society. The project MitoCom Tyrol (2011-2014) was a milestone in the establishment of MitoFit, supported by K-Regio to promote science, research and development within the area of Tyrol.
Preservation, gain or loss of mitochondrial fitness plays an increasing role in therapeutic and preventive medicine, with exercise and caloric balance ranking among the most effective measures for the reduction of several age-related health risks and degenerative diseases. Evaluation of mitochondrial competence requires improved methods and concepts for the diagnosis of mitochondrial functions and mitochondrial injuries, and represents a current challenge for biomedical research and development. MitoFit is a gateway to better diagnose, support and treat patients in our modern, rapidly ageing society.