The Oroboros O2k is the modular system for high-resolution respirometry (HRR) for mitochondria and cell research. HRR is the basis for combined measurement of respiration and ROS production, mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP production, Ca2+, or pH. With the Oroboros O2k, small amounts of biological samples can be used for bioenergetic and OXPHOS analysis, ranging from isolated mitochondria, permeabilized tissues and permeabilized cells to intact cells and tissues slices. Experimental data are displayed not only as oxygen concentration over time but also as real-time transformation of these data, allowing the experimenter to follow respiration (oxygen consumption, oxygen flux) of biological and biochemical samples while the experiment is still running. The modular O2k-concept is supported by DatLab 7 with high flexibility for extension by add-on O2k-Modules or economical first steps with the Startup O2k-Respirometer. By using the SUITbrowser the best substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor-titration (SUIT) protocol for your research questions can be found.
O2k-Modules can be added at any time and combined in any configuration with the O2k-FluoRespirometer to extend the O2k according to application-specific objectives: potentiometry (pH, TPP+ or TPMP+ for mitochondrial membrane potential, Ca2+) and amperometry (NO, H2S). The titration-Injection microPump TIP2k allows operation with programmable titration regimes. Auxiliary O2k-Tools provide extended support in the context of high-resolution respirometry: Microsyringes, PBI-Shredder O2k-Set for tissue preparation; Microbalance, O2k-Dissection Set.
The high-resolution O2k technology is internationally tested and trusted with emphasis on quality and scientific output of research in mitochondrial physiology and pathology.
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MitoPedia O2k and high-resolution respirometry: O2k hardware
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Why buy an Oroboros O2k and not a different Oxygraph?
The Oroboros O2k, development and distribution
- In 1992 the first model of the Oroboros O2k instrument was developed and produced in Austria by Oroboros Instruments in cooperation with WGT and distributed world-wide within the next two years. The cooperation with our partner ssn made it possible to release the DatLab software and set therewith a new standard in software-supported high-resolution respirometry. The development of the 2nd generation of our high-resolution respirometer O2k with its ability to measure oxygen in 2 experimental chambers started in (2000) with the first O2k being delivered in 2002. The continuous innovation led to the production of the O2k-Core (O2k-Series D - G with the O2k-Fluo LED2-Module) and the O2k-FluoRespirometer (O2k-Series H) which is the basis for combined measurement of respiration and fluorometric signals.
- Today the O2k-FluoRespirometer is distributed globally in partnership with our local distributors in
- » North China, Hongkong Region, Macao Region: CN Beijing Huawei
- » South China: CN Shanghai Zenda
- » Taiwan: TW Taoyuan Sunpoint
- » Republic of Korea: KR Seoul Scitech Korea
- » Japan: JP Tokyo Berthold
- More information to Oroboros Company history
Behind the name
- O2k: The O2k measures oxygen (dioxygen, O2) as a gas dissolved in aqueous solution.
- O2k: The O2k has two experimental chambers (k: Kammern, German for chambers). Why 2 mL?
- O2k: Development of the new O2k started in 2k (2000) and the first O2k was delivered in 2002
O2k and high-resolution respirometry
- High-Resolution Respirometry (HRR) is the result of our long-term expertise in instrumental design, software development, mitochondrial physiology, clinical and pharmacological applications, and worldwide scientific cooperation. The innovative O2k-developments provide a system of highest quality and distinguish HRR as a method and concept.
- HRR is defined on the basis of instrumental features of the O2k. The limit of detection of oxygen flux is as low as 1 pmol O2.s-1.mL-1. Oxygen back diffusion at zero oxygen is <4 pmol.s-1.mL-1. Oxygen consumption by the polarographic oxygen sensor at air saturation and standard barometric pressure (100 kPa) is 2.7 pmol.s-1.mL-1 (± 0.9 SD; 114 test runs at 37 °C). These highly standardized instrumental background fluxes are a linear function of oxygen concentration, which is used for automatic background correction of oxygen flux (DatLab). Typical exponential time constants of the oxygen sensors are <4 s, used for dynamic corrections in kinetic studies. Signal noise at zero oxygen concentration is <0.05 µM O2.
- The Oroboros O2k is the unique state-of-the-art instrument for HRR - where high-resolution counts:
- with small amounts of cells or tissue,
- at low respiratory activities,
- multiple substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titrations (SUIT protocols) with resolution of changes in oxygen flux over prolonged incubation times,
- flexibility of O2k-MultiSensor applications,
- fast transitions at low oxygen levels,
- stability and quality control.
- Today, such high resolution meets rapidly increasing demands, reflected by the increasing number and high level of O2k-Publications. Applications of the O2k in leading O2k-Network Labs are the driving forces for a rapid advancement of mitochondrial physiology. Open access to the O2k-Manual is an integral part of the concept of Oroboros Instruments on Gentle Science and Scientific Social Responsibility. With sharing of O2k-Procedures and implementation of quality control, the study of mitochondrial and cell respiration emerges as a quantitative science. Thus high-resolution respirometry provides the foundation for comparative mitochondrial physiology, biomedical research, translation into clinical applications, establishing quantitative functional mitochondrial diagnosis.
- Specific substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titration (SUIT) protocols are applied in studies of cell respiration or mitochondrial activity. In experiments with living cells, different coupling control states can be studied to evaluate ROUTINE respiratory activity, respiration coupled to ATP production, respiratory excess capacity, residual oxygen consumption, and, by extension of conventional protocols, intactness of cell membranes. In mitochondrial preparations such as isolated mitochondria, permeabilized cells and tissue samples, or homogenized tissue, quantitative information is obtained on selected mitochondrial pathways, particularly of the process of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in mitochondria and bacteria. Comprehensive OXPHOS analysis leads us beyond the highly informative process of oxygen consumption, when high-resolution respirometry is combined with O2k-MultiSensor modules to simultaneously measure the production of reactive oxygen species or mitochondrial membrane potential, nitric oxide production, acid-base balance or calcium with O2k-FluoRespirometry or ion selective electrodes. In the O2k, these bioenergetic parameters are always evaluated in combination with the measurement of oxygen concentration and respiration.
Which are the most common applications of the Oroboros O2k
- The O2k is used in basic and applied research to study the respiration of tissues, cells and mitochondria. Fairly simple to highly complex, comprehensive experimental protocols can be applied to assess either basal mitochondrial characteristics or obtain diagnostic insight into respiratory pathways. Topically, studies using the O2k range from comparative physiological investigations addressing evolutionary and environmental aspects of mitochondrial metabolism over the energetics related to exercise physiology, nutrition and life style, to aspects of clinical interest such as the impact of metabolic diseases, cancer, or pharmacological interventions.
The most prominent applications of the O2k
- Studies on exercise physiology;nutrition;life style
- Diagnosis of acquired and genetic mitochondrial diseases
- Diagnosis of myopathies and neuromuscular pathologies
- Studies on cell function and cell death - apoptosis and necrosis
- Measurement of oxidative stress
- Studies on ischemia-reperfusion injury
- Studies on aging and senescence
- Pharmacological tests
- Studies on Diabetes 2
- For more applications, browse through the 4149 O2k-Publications in the MiPMap.